Law is a body of principles and procedures that establishes rules for the governance of society. It involves the adoption, administration, and enforcement of policies that govern the conduct of government and private actors in a manner consistent with internationally accepted standards and norms.
The rule of law is a foundation for the democratic process and a source of protection for individuals and the public. It is founded on the principle that everyone has the right to a fair trial and to be heard by an impartial judge.
Civil law is the body of laws that regulates relationships between individual people. It includes the law of contract, property, and torts (including defamation).
In contrast to criminal law, which focuses on crimes that occur against a federal, state, or local community, civil law deals with legal disputes between individuals. It covers areas such as family, property, employment, contract, and judicial proceedings.
Religious law is based on a set of precepts from a religion, such as the Jewish Halakha and Islamic Sharia. While these traditions may not have been codified into law, they do survive in some parts of the world.
It is important to note that while a law may be based on a set of principles or rules, it cannot be enforced without an appropriate governmental body enacting the rules. A governing body can only be effective if it has a clear and coherent system for interpreting the law and applying it to cases.
There are four universal principles that govern the rule of law: legitimacy, reasonableness, transparency, and access to justice. These principles were developed and tested in a variety of nations and communities around the world.
Legitimacy is the belief that a particular norm is legally valid. It is not a question of whether the norm is correct or true. Rather, it is a matter of whether the norm is a good and legitimate one, as endorsed by legal institutions and courts.
Justification is the legal grounding for a norm, typically involving a normative theory or a set of facts. It is a more fundamental, general, and abstract issue than validity.
For example, Joseph holds a right in his name because it is a good and legitimate normative rule for everyone to hold a right in their good name.
While a claim is a first-order norm (determining what parties should do or may do), power is a second-order norm (determining what the parties can do or cannot do). Immunities are third-order norms (determining what parties can do or cannot do).
A right may correlate to some duty, which gives it effect, but this relationship does not vest until certain conditions have been met. For example, a right against an executor for a portion of a deceased person’s estate does not vest until the executor’s duty to pay debts and satisfy claims has been satisfied.